Animation – About

Pioneer – Emile Cohl.

“French cartoonist and animator Émile Cohl is often referred to as “the father of the animated cartoon.” The legend goes that in in 1907, when motion pictures were reaching critical mass, the 50-year-old Cohl was walking down the street and spotted a poster for a movie clearly stolen from one of his comic strips. He confronted the manager of the offending studio, Gaumont, in outrage and was hired on the spot as a scenarist—the person generating one-page story ideas for movies. Between February and May 1908, Cohl created Fantasmagorie, considered the first fully animated film ever made.” – http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2011/07/before-walt-disney-5-pioneers-of-early-animation/241448/

Persistence of vision was researched by Peter Mark Roget which is credited as the start of animation when he established that it was responsible for our perceptions of such animations.

TECHNIQUES

– ROTOSCOPING

Examples:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQlc3HRIDwM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxCyV_hd3Io

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPPgtpV7Hs8

Rotoscoping involves the use of a rotoscope to trace over footage per frame to create the animation. This has since been replaced with the use of a computer but still keeps the name. This makes it easier to create an animation with this technique.

Simply, it’s the animation effect of drawing over a single frame in a sequence and stringing them together to create the animation with the sketched drawing effect.

Max Fleischer is the pioneer of rotoscoping. He invented the system and patented it in 1915.

1301080787_magicfields_cover_image_1_1

http://www.infoplease.com/biography/var/maxfleischer.html

http://www.fleischerstudios.com/history.html

– MORPHING

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2AitTPI5U0

morphing is an animation technique that takes still photos/frames and bridges the gap blending them from one frame to the next, as seen near the end in the music video above – can be seen morphing one face to the next blending them together making them seem like one.

These effects were first in use in the 80’s and seen in films such as Willow (1988) and The Golden Child (1986)

The company ‘Industrial Lighy & Magic’ is that behind the first morphing in the movie ‘Willow’. According the wiki page the people Tom Brigham and Doug Smythe are credited as the developers, however I can’t find this information anywhere else.

-STOP MOTION

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0syrKzXfKuI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQkC0Qs3aD0

stop motion is a form of animation that’s done through creating still characters out of materials such as paper or clay and taking photos for every frame, moving the model that little bit closer through every frame. This technique can also be transferred to every day items and creating models. Taking a single photo of your scene would signify a frame, the next photo would be the next. Strung together would create the animation. The more photos, the better the flow and the more realistic it becomes.

J. Stuart Blackton and Albert Smith are credited as the pioneers of stop motion as one of the first to use it with the creation of ‘Humpty Dumpty Circus’.

http://victorian-cinema.net/blackton

http://trueclassics.net/2011/09/03/pioneers-of-animation-j-stuart-blackton/

https://ch4nts.wordpress.com/

Animexample3edit

Animexample

-COMPUTER ANIMATION/CGI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1xaySJwTJg

a technique of animation created completely on a computer. Utilized on various programs such as microsoft powerpoint and can be created using programs such as flash.

The technique dates back to the 60’s and is credited to John Whitney. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TbV7loKp69s this is one of his first animations he created using his own Analogue computer.

http://www.tested.com/art/movies/512325-whitney-family-pioneers-computer-animation/

http://www.awn.com/mag/issue2.5/2.5pages/2.5moritzwhitney.html

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